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9 on which point would kohlberg and gilligan agree? Tutorial

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Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development [1]

Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Kohlberg began work on this topic as a psychology graduate student at the University of Chicago in 1958 and expanded upon the theory throughout his life.[1][2][3]
The six stages of moral development occur in phases of pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional morality. For his studies, Kohlberg relied on stories such as the Heinz dilemma and was interested in how individuals would justify their actions if placed in similar moral dilemmas
There have been critiques of the theory from several perspectives. Arguments have been made that it emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other moral values, such as caring; that there is such an overlap between stages that they should more properly be regarded as domains or that evaluations of the reasons for moral choices are mostly post hoc rationalizations (by both decision makers and psychologists) of intuitive decisions.[12][13]

Modern Views of Moral Development [2]

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Kohlberg continued to explore his theory after he published his research. He postulated that there could be other stages and that there could be transitions into each stage
Men and women tend to have very different styles of moral decision making; men tend to be very justice-oriented, while women tend to be more compassion oriented. In terms of Kohlberg’s stages, women tend to be in lower stages than men because of their compassion orientation.
She believed that Kohlberg’s theory was inherently biased against women. Gilligan suggests that the biggest reason that there is a gender bias in Kohlberg’s theory is that males tend to focus on logic and rules

Engineering Ethics – Gilligan’s Theory [3]

It had been observed that Kohlbergā€™s theory was proposed based on the moral thinking of privileged white men and boys. Hence this theory was popularized by taking both male and female thinking capabilities into account.
She pursued her doctorate degree in Social Psychology from the Harvard University. Gilligan was a research assistant for Lawrence Kohlberg, but she eventually became independent and criticized some of his theories.
According to Gilligan, Kohlberg seemed to have studied only privileged men and boys. She believed that women face a lot of psychological challenges and they are not moral widgets

Kohlberg’s Moral Stages [4]

An outstanding example of research in the Piagetian tradition is the work of Lawrence Kohlberg. Kohlberg has focused on moral development and has proposed a stage theory of moral thinking which goes well beyond Piaget’s initial formulations.
He did not go immediately to college, but instead went to help the Israeli cause, in which he was made the Second Engineer on an old freighter carrying refugees from parts of Europe to Israel. After this, in 1948, he enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he scored so high on admission tests that he had to take only a few courses to earn his bachelor’s degree
However, he soon became interested in Piaget and began interviewing children and adolescents on moral issues. The result was his doctoral dissertation (1958a), the first rendition of his new stage theory.

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development [5]

Lawrence Kohlberg formulated a theory asserting that individuals progress through six distinct stages of moral reasoning from infancy to adulthood.. He grouped these stages into three broad categories of moral reasoning, pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional
Kohlberg suggested that people move through these stages in a fixed order and that moral understanding is linked to cognitive development.. Lawrence Kohlberg (1958) agreed with Piaget’s (1932) theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further.
In each case, he presented a choice to be considered, for example, between the rights of some authority and the needs of some deserving individual unfairly treated.. After presenting people with various moral dilemmas, Kohlberg categorized their responses into different stages of moral reasoning.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development | Definition & Framework [6]

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.. – Simply Psychology – Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
– Verywell Mind – Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development. – National Center for Biotechnology Information – PubMed Central – Construct validity of the Moral Development Scale for Professionals (MDSP)
Cognitive in nature, Kohlberg’s theory focuses on the thinking process that occurs when one decides whether a behaviour is right or wrong. Thus, the theoretical emphasis is on how one decides to respond to a moral dilemma, not what one decides or what one actually does.

Understanding the Whole Child: Prenatal Development through Adolescence [7]

14.3 Cognitive Theorists: Piaget, Elkind, Kohlberg, and Gilligan. 14.3.1 Jean Piaget: Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development
One of the most widely known perspectives about cognitive development is the cognitive stage theory of a Swiss psychologist named Jean Piaget. Piaget created and studied an account of how children and youth gradually become able to think logically and scientifically
Piaget was a psychological constructivist: in his view, learning was proceeded by the interplay of assimilation (adjusting new experiences to fit prior concepts) and accommodation (adjusting concepts to fit new experiences). The to-and-fro of these two processes leads not only to short-term learning, but also to long-term developmental change

Difference between GILLIGAN and KOHLBERG CONTROVERSY [8]

Difference between GILLIGAN and KOHLBERG CONTROVERSY. Professor Jean Piaget’s study on evolution of thinking pattern of individual human beings and its influence on moral development of the person is an interesting subject of psychology
Carol Gilligan, a student and colleague of Kohlberg, however noted that Kohlberg collected data from affluent middle-class male only, which resulted in females scoring consistently at stage 3 and males at stage 4 & 5, when the model was applied to them. The point of contention is that Kohlberg’s model directs to inferior morality of women as compared to men, which Carol Gilligan noticed and opposed
Lawrence Kohlberg’s model of evolution of morality is based upon the principle that human beings make decisions on the basis of universal, abstract principles of justice, duty, and impartial reasoning, and logic. Carol Gilligan’s ‘ethics of care’ principle, which was at the centre of her model, is based on the basic tenet that, female psychology, values, and even moral structure differ from that of males

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy [9]

The moral theory known as “ the ethics of care” implies that there is moral significance in the fundamental elements of relationships and dependencies in human life. Normatively, care ethics seeks to maintain relationships by contextualizing and promoting the well-being of care-givers and care-receivers in a network of social relations
It builds on the motivation to care for those who are dependent and vulnerable, and it is inspired by both memories of being cared for and the idealizations of self. Following in the sentimentalist tradition of moral theory, care ethics affirms the importance of caring motivation, emotion and the body in moral deliberation, as well as reasoning from particulars
Both charged traditional moral approaches with male bias, and asserted the “voice of care” as a legitimate alternative to the “justice perspective” of liberal human rights theory. Annette Baier, Virginia Held, Eva Feder Kittay, Sara Ruddick, and Joan Tronto are some of the most influential among many subsequent contributors to care ethics.



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