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The Roman Empire: in the First Century. The Roman Empire. Social Order 
By the first century, however, the need for capable men to run Romes vast empire was slowly eroding the old social barriers.. The social structure of ancient Rome was based on heredity, property, wealth, citizenship and freedom
Women were expected to look after the houses and very few had any real independence.. The boundaries between the different classes were strict and legally enforced: members of different classes even dressed differently
Equestrian togas had a narrow purple stripe (clavus augustus).. Although the classes were strictly defined, there was a lot of interaction
Julius Caesar [ushistory.org] 
The first conspirator greeted Caesar, then plunged a knife into his neck. One by one, several members of the Senate took turns stabbing Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.E.), the dictator of the entire Roman Empire.
On the steps of the Senate, the most powerful man in the ancient world died in a pool of his own blood.. In William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, the title character manages to utter “Et tu, Brute?” (“and you, Brutus?”) as he is slain
In his history about the life of Julius Caesar, Suetonius writes that as the assassins plunged their daggers into the dictator, Caesar saw Brutus and spoke the Greek phrase kai su, teknon, meaning “you too, my child.”There is still debate whether or not it was shouted in shock or said as a warning. On one hand, Caesar may have been amazed to find a close friend like Brutus trying to kill him; on the other hand, he may have meant that Brutus would pay for his crime in the future for this treachery
The Pax Romana [ushistory.org] 
The term “Pax Romana,” which literally means “Roman peace,” refers to the time period from 27 B.C.E. This 200-year period saw unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire, which spanned from England in the north to Morocco in the south and Iraq in the east
Nevertheless, Rome’s citizens were relatively secure, and the government generally maintained law, order, and stability. The Pax Romana began when Octavian became the leader of the Roman Empire.
Out of this turmoil emerged the Second Triumvirate, consisting of Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian, who was Julius Caesar’s nephew. This new triumvirate ruled Rome for a decade, but as happened with the First Triumverate, differences among the leaders eventually emerged.
Peace & Prosperity: What Was the Pax Romana? 
The Pax Romana, or “Roman Peace,” is commonly defined as the period running from the foundation of the Roman imperial system under Augustus Caesar from 27 BCE until around180 CE, with the death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.. Yet the Pax Romana was not just a period of time, it was above all an ideal
Under the Pax Romana Rome consolidated her empire, progressing her “civilizing” agenda over conquered peoples, in the West, Africa, and the Near East. Always benefiting Romans the most, prosperity increasingly benefited provincial peoples, who were assimilated into the empire.
The Pax Romana was in part defined by the discord of the Roman Republic that preceded it. The Republic had become untenable with its fractious politics, galloping expansionism, and highly volatile nature.
Chapter 8: The Roman Republic – Western Civilization: A Concise History 
Even more so than Greece, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire that followed created the idea of a single, united civilization sharing certain attributes and providing a lasting intellectual and political legacy. Its boundaries, from what is today England to Turkey and from Germany to Spain, mark out the heartland of what its inhabitants would later consider itself to be “The West” in so many words
Rome was originally a town built amidst seven hills surrounded by swamps in central Italy. The Romans were just one group of “Latins,” central Italians who spoke closely-related dialects of the Latin language
It was at the intersection of trade routes, thanks in part to its proximity to a natural ford (a shallow part of a river that can be crossed on foot) in the Tiber River, leading to a prosperous commercial and mercantile sector that provided the wealth for early expansion. It also lay on the route between the Greek colonies of southern Italy and various Italian cultures in the central and northern part of the peninsula.
Roman Empire 
|Government||Semi-elective absolute monarchy (de facto)|. |Historical era||Classical era to Late Middle Ages|
The Roman Empire[a] was the post-Republican state of ancient Rome. It included territory around the Mediterranean in Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, and was ruled by emperors
The Roman Republic became severely destabilized in civil wars and political conflicts, eventually culminating in the victory of Octavian over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt. The Roman Senate granted Octavian overarching power (imperium) and the new title of Augustus, marking his accession as the first Roman emperor of a Principate with Italia as the metropole and Rome as its sole capital
LibGuides at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY 
According to legend the city of Rome was founded by one of two brothers, named Romulus. The two – Romulus and Remus, were considered to be the children of the Roman god Mars and after Romulus killed Remus, he built the city and named it after himself.
The Intervention of the Sabine Women by Jacques-Louis David. After Romulus founded Rome, he needed to provide his new citizens with wives
The war with the Sabines that followed marked the beginning of a thousand year period in which Roman Kingdom, then Republic, and finally Empire would expand – first across Italy and then through Europe and the Mediterranean region.. The Roman Republic is traditionally said to have begun after the overthrow of the seventh and last Roman King named Lucius Tarquinius Superbus following the rape of the noblewoman Lucretia by his son in 509 B.C
Ancient Rome – Late Republic, Intellectual Life, Education, & Law 
– The establishment of Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean world. – The Roman state in the two decades after Sulla (79–60 bc)
– The consolidation of the empire under the Julio-Claudians. – Growth of the empire under the Flavians and Antonines
– The recovery of the empire and the establishment of the dominate (270–337). – The Roman Empire under the 4th-century successors of Constantine
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 
Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 B.C.E. His life coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, and he was an important actor in many of the significant political events of his time, and his writings are now a valuable source of information to us about those events
Making sense of his writings and understanding his philosophy requires us to keep that in mind. He placed politics above philosophical study; the latter was valuable in its own right but was even more valuable as the means to more effective political action
While Cicero is currently not considered an exceptional thinker, largely on the (incorrect) grounds that his philosophy is derivative and unoriginal, in previous centuries he was considered one of the great philosophers of the ancient era, and he was widely read well into the 19th century. Probably the most notable example of his influence is St
Advantages Of The Roman Empire – 1117 Words 
After modifying the Etruscan arch the Romans found it was perfect to build an aqueduct to carry water all across the vast empire. This marvel in itself led to the invention of toilets, sinks, modern day plumbing, and wastewater infrastructure
Roman Government: The Roman government was the almost exact predecessor to our modern day government here in the U.S.. The only difference in the governments is that the U.S
I believe that with checks and balances systems in place the Empire could have survived much. I think Rome lasted as long as it did because, they had a complex Society they were able to conquer neighboring empires and give them a chance to govern them self as long as they paid taxes, give troops to Rome in the hope of becoming Romans
Lecture 12: Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana 
the morning of March 15, 44 B.C., JULIUS CAESAR was assassinated by several members of the. This was just one month after he had declared himself dictator of the
which would punish Caesar’s assassins and then divide up the Roman world. this triumvirate consisted of Marc Antony (consul), Lepidus (high official), and Octavian
Brutus and Cassius were defeated in the Battle of Philippi (42 B.C.) and Cicero, perhaps the greatest thinker. in the Roman world, had his hands and head cut off and placed in public display in the
Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power and Dictatorship 
In the time of outrage and uncertainty a general took the republics in Europe and changed the course of the future of Rome. Caesar made his name by easily conquering the Gauls and adding more riches for Rome
Caesar used this popularity to take Rome for himself. This turn of events showed to be the downfall of the Roman republic
Julius Caesar had an advantage in part of his popularity and influence over the people. This influence helped gained his support in his capture of Rome
Augustus’ Political, Social, & Moral Reforms 
Augustus is well known for being the first Emperor of Rome, but even more than that, for being a self-proclaimed “Restorer of the Republic.” He believed in ancestral values such as monogamy, chastity, and piety (virtue). Thus, he introduced a number of moral and political reforms in order to improve Roman society and formulate a new Roman government and lifestyle
First, Augustus restored public monuments, especially the Temples of the Gods, as part of his quest for religious revival. He also commissioned the construction of monuments that would further promote and encourage traditional Roman religion
After Augustus generated renewed interest in religion, he sought to renew the practice of worship.. In order to do so, Augustus revived the priesthoods and was appointed as pontifex maximus, which made him both the secular head of the Roman Empire and the religious leader
Constitutional Rights Foundation 
The Whiskey Rebellion and the New American Republic | Cicero: Defender of the Roman Republic | “Justice as Fairness”: John Rawls and His Theory of JusticeCicero: Defender of the Roman Republic. Cicero was a Roman orator, lawyer, statesman, and philosopher
Born in 106 B.C., Marcus Tullius Cicero came from a wealthy landowning family. But he was not from one of the old patrician families that held most of the political power in the Roman Republic
As a young man, Cicero witnessed many great orators speaking at trials in the outdoor Roman Forum. They inspired him to seek fame and glory as a trial advocate (a type of early lawyer) and political leader.
11 Roman Emperors Who Helped Mold the Ancient World 
Few periods in history have had a greater impact on humankind than that of ancient Rome. While its influence on western civilization, in particular, has been ubiquitous, its remnants can be found virtually everywhere, from our calendar and political systems to our alphabet
So who exactly left an indelible mark on ancient Rome?. From its inception to its collapse in 476 A.D., ancient Rome had three distinct periods: Regal Rome, (753–509 B.C.), when monarchs ruled; Republican Rome (509–27 B.C.), when Roman elected its governors; and Imperial Rome (27 B.C.–476 A.D.), when a supreme ruler oversaw the empire, and in early years did so alongside the elected senate
These rulers, often as innovative and ingenious as they were brutal and corrupt, spanned the gamut—from teenagers and impotent leaders barely able to hold court for months to era-defining emperors responsible for molding at least part of the world today as we know it. Technically, as the last ruler of Rome’s Republican era, Gaius Julius Caesar was never recognized as an emperor