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A Guide to the War in the Pacific: The Pacific Offensive 
Changing Tides of War: Allied Pacific Counteroffensives. political and military leaders sought strategy and tactics and new forms
It was in this year, 1943, that the long and hotly debated. theory of strategic bombing took a deadly form, as Air Marshal Sir
1,000-plane night raid made in June 1942 on Koln [Cologne]. strategic bombing of Japan, protected by thousands of miles of ocean and
Eisenhower was appointed the Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force during World War II. As leader of all Allied troops in Europe, he led “Operation Overlord,” the amphibious invasion of Normandy across the English Channel
Links go to DocsTeach, the online tool for teaching with documents from the National Archives.. The Night Before D-Day on DocsTeach asks students to analyze two documents written by General Dwight Eisenhower before the invasion of Normandy on D-Day: his “In Case of Failure” message and his Order of the Day
The World War II page on DocsTeach includes other primary sources and document-based teaching activities related to World War II. It includes topics such as D-Day, women in the war, Code Talkers, propaganda posters, the homefront, the Holocaust, Pearl Harbor, the atomic bomb, war crimes and trials, and more.
Which two is commanders led troops in the European and pacific fronts? 
The two United States Commanders that led troops in the European and Pacific fronts during World War II were General Eisenhower and General MacArthur. Eisenhower was in Europe and MacArthur was in the Pacific.
The second front was the Pacific theater in which U.S. troops fought the Japanese an ally of Nazi Germany and a member of the Axis powers in Japan/Pacific Islands
After December 1, 1941, the US Congress declared war on Japan.. troops were needed to guard Pacific and Artic ports for the Allies.
The Pacific Strategy, 1941-1944 
On December 7, 1941, Japan staged a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, severely damaging the US Pacific Fleet. When Germany and Italy declared war on the United States days later, America found itself in a global war
Yet, with much of the US fleet destroyed and a nation unprepared for war, America and its allies decided they needed to save Great Britain and defeat Germany first.. The Japanese, meanwhile, sought to complete what they began at Pearl Harbor
With its battleship fleet crippled in Hawaii, the US Navy turned to two surviving assets. Aircraft carriers and submarines mounted a serious challenge to Japan’s triumphant fleet and were critical to protecting mainland America
World War 2: Island Hopping Battles in the Pacific 
When Japan made a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt described it as a “date which will live in infamy.” Over 2,400 American servicemen were killed in the devastating attack and America was immediately brought into World War 2.
Despite the Japanese attacking the U.S., America’s leading generals thought defeating Germany was the more pressing concern. General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz were in charge of U.S
The “island hopping” plan involved winning battles on Pacific islands to gain military bases and moving across the Pacific Ocean and closer to Japan. This strategy would span three years and would take U.S
Douglas MacArthur | Biography, Command, & Facts 
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.. Douglas MacArthur, (born January 26, 1880, Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S.—died April 5, 1964, Washington, D.C.), U.S
MacArthur was the third son of Arthur MacArthur, later the army’s senior ranking officer, and Mary Hardy MacArthur, an ambitious woman who strongly influenced Douglas. He was graduated from West Point in 1903 with the highest honours in his class and served the next 10 years as an aide and a junior engineering officer, following this with four years on the general staff
During the 1920s he initiated far-reaching reforms while superintendent at West Point, served on William (“Billy”) Mitchell’s court-martial, held two commands in the Philippines, commanded two U.S. corps areas, and headed the 1928 American Olympic Committee.
The Far-Flung War: Fighting on Distant Fronts 
The spark that started the war came from Eastern Europe. The major combatants—the Central Powers (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary) and the Allies (led by France, Russia, and Great Britain)—entered the war to protect their territory and their interests in Europe
But soon after the war started, fighting spread to far-flung European colonies in the Pacific Ocean and in Africa, to the Italian border with Austria-Hungary, and to key strategic points in the Middle East and in western Asia, in what was then known as the Ottoman Empire and is now known as Turkey. Though much of the distant fighting had little bearing on the war, the fighting in Turkey and Italy was especially intense and destructive
This chapter surveys the various distant theaters of operations (areas where combat took place) that turned a European conflict into the first war to be fought all over the world.. In the years before the war started, Germany had worked hard to establish colonies in distant parts of the world
World War II: Summary, Combatants & Facts 
World War II, the largest and deadliest conflict in human history, involved more than 50 nations and was fought on land, sea and air in nearly every part of the world. Also known as the Second World War, it was caused in part by the economic crisis of the Great Depression and by political tensions left unresolved following the end of World War I.
By the end of World War II, an estimated 60 to 80 million people had died, including up to 55 million civilians, and numerous cities in Europe and Asia were reduced to rubble.. Among the people killed were 6 million Jews murdered in Nazi concentration camps as part of Hitler’s diabolical “Final Solution,” now known as the Holocaust
The devastation of the Great War (as World War I was known at the time) had greatly destabilized Europe, and in many respects World War II grew out of issues left unresolved by that earlier conflict. In particular, political and economic instability in Germany, and lingering resentment over the harsh terms imposed by the Versailles Treaty, fueled the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and National Socialist German Workers’ Party, abbreviated as NSDAP in German and the Nazi Party in English..
A List of American Commanders in WWII Who Lost Their Lives 
Patton, Jr., once said, “An army is like a piece of cooked spaghetti. You can’t push it, you have to pull it after you.” He was referring to commanders being leaders as he had little use for commanders that were not out in front of their units
Leaders being out front or is not a unique military concept, nor exclusively that of the United States. Since the earliest days of recorded warfare, the good leaders have always been at the forefront of battle.
This was especially evident in the Soviet Union in the years before the onset of World War II. During the war, Hitler not only directed military battles, but controlled the general officer corps to an incredible, and as it turned out, disastrous degree.
OSS in Action The Mediterranean and European Theaters (U.S. National Park Service) 
In war it is the results that count, and the saboteurs and guerrilla leaders in Special Operations and the Operational Groups, the spies in Secret Intelligence, and the radio operators in Communications did produce some impressive results. In this unconventional warfare, Donovan believed that “persuasion, penetration and intimidation …are the modern counterparts of sapping and mining in the siege warfare of former days.” His innovative “combined arms” approach sought to integrate espionage, sabotage, guerrilla operations, and demoralizing propaganda to undermine enemy control and weaken the interior lines of communications and supply in enemy’s rear before and during the assault at the front by conventional forces of the Allies.1
“In no previous war,” he added, “and in no other theater during this war, have Resistance forces been so closely harnessed to the main military effort….I consider that the disruption of enemy rail communications, the harassing of German road moves and the continual and increasing strain placed on the German war economy and internal security services throughout occupied Europe by the organized forces of Resistance, played a very considerable part in our complete and final victory.”2. It has been estimated that during World War II, the total number of people who served in the OSS probably numbered fewer than 20,000 men and women altogether, less than the size of one of the nearly one hundred U.S
Among the 20,000 OSSers, probably fewer than 7,500 served overseas.3 The number of agents the OSS had behind enemy lines was far smaller. It remains undisclosed, but one indication of how many OSS agents may have been infiltrated as spies, saboteurs, guerrilla leaders or clandestine radio operators, is the number who took parachute training, the primary method of infiltration
HyperWar: The Big ‘L’–American Logistics in World War II [Chapter 6] 
It was a war of distances, advance bases, and was a strategy driven and constrained by logistics. This was particularly true in the Pacific Theater for both the United States and Japan
Fleet Admiral King in his reports to the Secretary of the Navy summed it up as follows:. The war has been variously termed a war of production and a war of machines
The ways and means to supply and support our forces in all parts of the world–including the Army–of course have presented problems nothing short of colossal, and have required the most careful and intricate planning. The profound effect of logistic problems is described elsewhere in this report, but to all who do not have to traverse them, the tremendous distances, particularly those in the Pacific, are not likely to have full significance