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11 which of the following would be considered a theory? Tutorial

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What Do We Mean by “Theory” in Science? [1]

I am a paleobiologist interested in three main topics: 1) understanding the broad implications of the paleobiology and paleoecology of extinct terrestrial vertebrates, particularly in relation to large scale problems such as the evolution of herbivory and the nature of the end-Permian mass extinction; 2) using quantitative methods to document and interpret morphological evolution in fossil and extant vertebrates; and 3) tropic network-based approaches to paleoecology. To address these problems, I integrate data from a variety of biological and geological disciplines including biostratigraphy, anatomy, phylogenetic systematics and comparative methods, functional morphology, geometric morphometrics, and paleoecology.
Most of my research in vertebrate paleobiology focuses on anomodont therapsids, an extinct clade of non-mammalian synapsids (“mammal-like reptiles”) that was one of the most diverse and successful groups of Permian and Triassic herbivores. Much of my dissertation research concentrated on reconstructing a detailed morphology-based phylogeny for Permian members of the clade, as well as using this as a framework for studying anomodont biogeography, the evolution of the group’s distinctive feeding system, and anomodont-based biostratigraphic schemes
Fieldwork is an important part of my paleontological research, and recent field areas include the Parnaíba Basin of Brazil, the Karoo Basin of South Africa, the Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, and the Luangwa Basin of Zambia. My collaborators and I have made important discoveries in the course of these field projects, including the first remains of dinocephalian synapsids from Tanzania and a dinosaur relative that implies that the two main lineages of archosaurs (one including crocodiles and their relatives and the other including birds and dinosaurs) were diversifying in the early Middle Triassic, only a few million years after the end-Permian extinction

Making a theory useful: lessons handed down [2]

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What makes a theory useful? Whether one is evaluating and investigating one’s own or another’s theory, there are some useful lessons to keep in mind. One lesson is that the reason a “good” theory should be testable, be coherent, be economical, be generalizable, and explain known findings is that all of these characteristics serve the primary function of a theory–to be generative of new ideas and new discoveries
One lesson is to know what the theory is and what it is not–don’t make it into something else either by “improving” it or by unfairly dismissing it. Know the theory’s domain of applicability–do test its limits but don’t overextend it
This article concludes by offering the metaphor that the lessons for developing a theory to make it useful have a lot in common with good parenting. For example: Neither spoil nor abuse the theory; neither neglect nor abandon it; support and nurture the theory; don’t overprotect it but do defend it; be patient with the theory–don’t push it too hard or too fast; and finally, don’t forget to love and enjoy it.

Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”? A) A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws. B) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported [3]

Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”? A) A theory can be an…. Which of the following can be considered definitions of “theory”?
B) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large body of observations.. C) A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared unrelated.
The establishment of scientific theories is accomplished by following the scientific method. The scientific method involves proposing a hypothesis, testing your hypothesis, observing and gathering data, performing retests if necessary, interpreting the data, and then evaluating the original hypothesis.

What Is a Theory? A Scientific Definition [4]

Timed-entry ticket reservations continue to be required for Museum entry. But for scientists, a theory has nearly the opposite meaning
The theory of gravitation, for instance, explains why apples fall from trees and astronauts float in space. Similarly, the theory of evolution explains why so many plants and animals—some very similar and some very different—exist on Earth now and in the past, as revealed by the fossil record.
The longer the central elements of a theory hold—the more observations it predicts, the more tests it passes, the more facts it explains—the stronger the theory.. Many advances in science—the development of genetics after Darwin’s death, for example—have greatly enhanced evolutionary thinking

What Do We Mean by “Theory” in Science? [5]

I am a paleobiologist interested in three main topics: 1) understanding the broad implications of the paleobiology and paleoecology of extinct terrestrial vertebrates, particularly in relation to large scale problems such as the evolution of herbivory and the nature of the end-Permian mass extinction; 2) using quantitative methods to document and interpret morphological evolution in fossil and extant vertebrates; and 3) tropic network-based approaches to paleoecology. To address these problems, I integrate data from a variety of biological and geological disciplines including biostratigraphy, anatomy, phylogenetic systematics and comparative methods, functional morphology, geometric morphometrics, and paleoecology.
Most of my research in vertebrate paleobiology focuses on anomodont therapsids, an extinct clade of non-mammalian synapsids (“mammal-like reptiles”) that was one of the most diverse and successful groups of Permian and Triassic herbivores. Much of my dissertation research concentrated on reconstructing a detailed morphology-based phylogeny for Permian members of the clade, as well as using this as a framework for studying anomodont biogeography, the evolution of the group’s distinctive feeding system, and anomodont-based biostratigraphic schemes
Fieldwork is an important part of my paleontological research, and recent field areas include the Parnaíba Basin of Brazil, the Karoo Basin of South Africa, the Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania, and the Luangwa Basin of Zambia. My collaborators and I have made important discoveries in the course of these field projects, including the first remains of dinocephalian synapsids from Tanzania and a dinosaur relative that implies that the two main lineages of archosaurs (one including crocodiles and their relatives and the other including birds and dinosaurs) were diversifying in the early Middle Triassic, only a few million years after the end-Permian extinction

Scientific theory [6]

A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world and universe that can be (or a fortiori, that has been) repeatedly tested and corroborated in accordance with the scientific method, using accepted protocols of observation, measurement, and evaluation of results. Where possible, theories are tested under controlled conditions in an experiment.[1][2] In circumstances not amenable to experimental testing, theories are evaluated through principles of abductive reasoning
A scientific theory differs from a scientific fact or scientific law in that a theory explains “why” or “how”: a fact is a simple, basic observation, whereas a law is a statement (often a mathematical equation) about a relationship between facts and/or other laws. For example, Newton’s Law of Gravity is a mathematical equation that can be used to predict the attraction between bodies, but it is not a theory to explain how gravity works.[3] Stephen Jay Gould wrote that “…facts and theories are different things, not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty
The meaning of the term scientific theory (often contracted to theory for brevity) as used in the disciplines of science is significantly different from the common vernacular usage of theory.[5][note 1] In everyday speech, theory can imply an explanation that represents an unsubstantiated and speculative guess,[5] whereas in a scientific context it most often refers to an explanation that has already been tested and is widely accepted as valid.[1][2]. The strength of a scientific theory is related to the diversity of phenomena it can explain and its simplicity

Multiple Choice Quiz [7]

Take the quiz to test your understanding of the key concepts covered in the chapter. Try testing yourself before you read the chapter to see where your strengths and weaknesses are, then test yourself again once you’ve read the chapter to see how well you’ve understood.
Which of the following should not be a criterion for a good research project?. – Demonstrates the integration of different fields of knowledge
Research that seeks to examine the findings of a study by using the same design but a different sample is which of the following?. A researcher designs an experiment to test how variables interact to influence job-seeking behaviours

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper [8]

Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support a theory of a research study
“The Meaning of Theory.” Sociological Theory 26 (June 2008): 173–199; Swanson, Richard A. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers 2013.
The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being considered.. The theoretical framework is most often not something readily found within the literature

This is the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory [9]

This is the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory. A hypothesis is an assumption made before any research has been done
A theory is a principle formed to explain the things already shown in data. Because of the rigors of experiment and control, it is much more likely that a theory will be true than a hypothesis.
The scientific method is designed to be a rigorous procedure for acquiring knowledge about the world around us.. Toward that end, science employs a particular vocabulary for describing how ideas are proposed, tested, and supported or disproven

Scientific Hypothesis, Theories and Laws [10]

have been established through repeated experimentation and. observation and have been refereed through peer review before
explanations are revised and improved, or rejected and replaced.. Science is a way of making sense of the world, with internally-consistent
and many hypotheses are tested to generate a theory. out how scientific hypotheses, theories and laws describe

Chapter 1: The Nature of Science [11]

Over the course of human history, people have developed many interconnected and validated ideas about the physical, biological, psychological, and social worlds. Those ideas have enabled successive generations to achieve an increasingly comprehensive and reliable understanding of the human species and its environment
These ways represent a fundamental aspect of the nature of science and reflect how science tends to differ from other modes of knowing.. It is the union of science, mathematics, and technology that forms the scientific endeavor and that makes it so successful
Accordingly, the first three chapters of recommendations draw portraits of science, mathematics, and technology that emphasize their roles in the scientific endeavor and reveal some of the similarities and connections among them.. This chapter lays out recommendations for what knowledge of the way science works is requisite for scientific literacy

Sources

  1. https://www.fieldmuseum.org/blog/what-do-we-mean-theory-science#:~:text=A%20theory%20is%20a%20carefully,together%20many%20facts%20and%20hypotheses.
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15223513/#:~:text=One%20lesson%20is%20that%20the,new%20ideas%20and%20new%20discoveries.
  3. https://homework.study.com/explanation/which-of-the-following-can-be-considered-definitions-of-theory-a-a-theory-can-be-an-explanation-of-scientific-laws-b-a-theory-is-an-integrated-explanation-of-numerous-hypotheses-each-supported-by-a-large-body-of-observations-c-a-theory-is-a-conde.html
  4. https://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/darwin/evolution-today/what-is-a-theory
  5. https://www.fieldmuseum.org/blog/what-do-we-mean-theory-science
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_theory
  7. https://study.sagepub.com/grayresearchworld4e/student-resources/multiple-choice-quiz
  8. https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/theoreticalframework
  9. https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/difference-between-hypothesis-and-theory-usage
  10. https://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/Theories.shtml
  11. http://www.project2061.org/publications/sfaa/online/chap1.htm

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