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Biology Online Dictionary 
DNA is the material that living organisms possess that carries their genetic make-up. DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid whereas RNA stands for ribonucleic acid
It is what makes the organism unique since no two organisms contain the same DNA.. Even twins, who genetically share the same DNA coding, as not exactly genetically identical
They help with code and decoding as well as the regulation and expression of genetic material.. DNA and RNA have their similarities and differences, especially in structure.
RNA Polymerase Active Center: The Molecular Engine of Transcription 
RNA Polymerase Active Center: The Molecular Engine of Transcription. RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a complex molecular machine that governs gene expression and its regulation in all cellular organisms
At the heart of this machine is the active center – the engine, which is composed of distinct fixed and moving parts that serve as the ultimate acceptor of regulatory signals and target of inhibitory drugs. Recent advances in the structural and biochemical characterization of RNAP explain the active center at the atomic level and enable new approaches to understanding the entire transcription mechanism, its exceptional fidelity and control.
The enzyme synthesizes an RNA copy of a DNA template strand de novo from nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) substrates. RNAP generates force (137,33) and utilizes energy to propagate unidirectionally in two-dimensional space at a speed of 15 to 80 nt/s (105,28), but unlike a motorized vehicle, this molecular machine operates as a Brownian ratchet (7,1,14)
From RNA to Protein 
By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
However, most genes in a cell produce mRNA molecules that serve as intermediaries on the pathway to proteins. In this section we examine how the cell converts the information carried in an mRNA molecule into a protein molecule
Here was a cryptogram set up by nature that, after more than 3 billion years of evolution, could finally be solved by one of the products of evolution—human beings. And indeed, not only has the code been cracked step by step, but in the year 2000 the elaborate machinery by which cells read this code—the ribosome—was finally revealed in atomic detail.
Single-stranded DNA gaps, tails and loops are repaired in Escherichia coli 
Single-stranded DNA gaps, tails and loops are repaired in Escherichia coli. Single-stranded DNA gaps, tails and loops are repaired in Escherichia coli
The results indicate that these cells are capable of repairing all of these structures, although with different efficiencies. Repair of single-stranded gaps and free ends, which occurs most efficiently, is always associated with acquisition of information from the uncut strand (unidirectional repair)
In these cases each of the two strands was capable of acting as the template for repair (bidirectional repair). At sites containing twin or substitution loops, the larger of the loops was removed twice as efficiently as the smaller loop
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule that is essential for most biological functions, either by performing the function itself (Non-coding RNA) or by forming a template for production of proteins (messenger RNA). RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are nucleic acids
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.
One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function in which RNA molecules direct the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) then links amino acids together to form coded proteins.
The Information in DNA Is Decoded by Transcription 
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. It contains all of the instructions a cell needs to sustain itself
In order to be implemented, the instructions contained within genes must be expressed, or copied into a form that can be used by cells to produce the proteins needed to support life.. The instructions stored within DNA are read and processed by a cell in two steps: transcription and translation
During transcription, a portion of the cell’s DNA serves as a template for creation of an RNA molecule. (RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is chemically similar to DNA, except for three main differences described later on in this concept page.) In some cases, the newly created RNA molecule is itself a finished product, and it serves an important function within the cell
Plasmid is aa. Single-stranded DNA.b. Double-stranded circular DNA.c. Extrachromosomal linear DNA.d. RNA. 
It is found mainly in a bacterial cell but it can also be located in some eukaryotes. The plasmid can be made artificially which is used in molecular cloning as the vector
In some cases, plasmids are found in linear shape and comprise RNA as the genetic material.. > Option A: Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) comprises a single DNA as the genetic material
> Option B: A plasmid is a double stranded circular DNA. Plasmid generally carries out those genes that produce selective advantages (like antibiotic resistance) to the bacteria.
Spontaneous binding of single-stranded RNAs to RRM proteins visualized by unbiased atomistic simulations with a rescaled RNA force field 
Miroslav Krepl and others, Spontaneous binding of single-stranded RNAs to RRM proteins visualized by unbiased atomistic simulations with a rescaled RNA force field, Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 50, Issue 21, 28 November 2022, Pages 12480–12496, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkac1106. Recognition of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) by RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains is an important class of protein–RNA interactions
However, it is becoming widely accepted that better understanding of protein–RNA interactions would be obtained from ensemble descriptions. Indeed, earlier molecular dynamics simulations of bound states indicated visible dynamics at the RNA–RRM interfaces
Using a millisecond-scale aggregate ensemble of unbiased simulations, we were able to observe a few dozen binding events. HuR RRM3 utilizes a pre-binding state to navigate the RNA sequence to its partially disordered bound state and then to dynamically scan its different binding registers
Replication of Double-Stranded DNA (dsDNA) Viruses 
in this video we’re going to talk more details about the synthesis and replication specifically of double stranded DNA viruses or Ds. And so double stranded DNA virus replication and expression actually follows the same steps as the central dogma of biology as we talked about it in our previous lesson videos
And so recall that the complementary strands of double stranded DNA are referred to as the plus coding strand and the minus template strand. And so we referred to the double stranded DNA molecule as a plus minus D
And so of course this double stranded DNA molecule we know it’s going to follow the same steps of the central dogma of biology. And so transcription is going to be able to produce the messenger RNA
Multicopy Single-Stranded DNA Directs Intestinal Colonization of Enteric Pathogens 
Multicopy single-stranded DNAs (msDNAs) are hybrid RNA-DNA molecules encoded on retroelements called retrons and produced by the action of retron reverse transcriptases. Retrons are widespread in bacteria but the natural function of msDNA has remained elusive despite 30 years of study
We report that msDNA of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is necessary for colonization of the intestine. Similarly, we observed a defect in intestinal persistence in an enteropathogenic E
Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of msDNA, proteins of central anaerobic metabolism needed for Salmonella colonization of the intestine are dysregulated. We show that the msDNA-deficient mutant can utilize nitrate, but not other alternate electron acceptors in anaerobic conditions